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Jun 26

Avian influenza

avian influenzaAvian influenza is an infection caused by certain strains of avian influenza virus. Although there are many types of avian influenza, the kind that is now of concern to health officials is the avian influenza virus H5N1. This virus is found in wild birds. Most of the time, wild birds do not get sick from the virus, but wild birds can easily transmit the virus to birds raised as human food, such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Viruses can cause them to become very ill. Usually the avian influenza virus is not transmitted from birds to humans. But since 1997, some people have become sick and even die from the virus. Most of these infections occur in Asian countries among people who never in close contact with birds and dealing with agriculture. Experts believe that the virus could eventually spread to all parts of the world, but so far, no cases of H5N1 avian influenza in humans are found in Canada or the United States.

On January 19, 2004, WHO officials confirmed five citizens of Vietnam died of avian influenza. Meanwhile in Thailand country is already six people have died of avian influenza, a 6-year-old teenager was confirmed as the first Thai people confirmed dead as a result of the outbreak. An epidemiologist at the Centre for Disease Control Dr. Danuta Skowronski, says that 80% of cases of avian influenza in children and adolescents. The death rate from avian influenza is very high. Based on the results of the study on 10 people infected with the avian influenza virus in Vietnam, the WHO found that of the 10 people infected eight people died, one recovered and another in critical condition.

Symptoms in humans

– Fever (body temperature above 38 C)
– Cough and sore throat
– Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract
– Pneumonia
– Eye Infection
– Muscle ache

Incubation period

– In Poultry: 1 week
– In Humans: 1-3 day infection period 1 day before until 3-5 days after onset of symptoms. In children up to 21 days.

Transmission

Avian influenza transmitted from bird to bird and from birds to the human, through saliva, mucus from the nose and feces. The disease can be transmitted through contaminated air from the H5N1 virus from bird droppings / poultry suffering from avian flu. Transmission from poultry to humans can also occur if direct contact with poultry infected with avian influenza. For example: in a chicken farm worker, cutting the chicken and other poultry product handlers.

Spread

The spread of avian influenza in various parts of the world, among others:

  • Chickens and humans in Hong Kong. During the 1997 outbreak of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) has infected lasted 18 people have been hospitalized and six of them died. To prevent the spread of local authorities destroy 1.5 million chickens infected with avian influenza.
  • In 1999, in Hong Kong reported cases of Avian Influenza A (H9N2) in 2 children without causing death.
  • In 2003, in Hong Kong, two new cases of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) and one person died.
  • In 2003, in the Netherlands found 80 cases of Avian Influenza A (H7N7) and one of them died.
  • In 2004 happened again 25 cases of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) in Vietnam (19) and Thailand (6), which left 19 people dead (5 in Thailand, 14 in Vietnam)

PREVENTION

  • Maintain cleanliness of oneself among others shower and wash hands frequently with soap, especially those who frequently come into contact with poultry.
  • Cleaning up the environment around where we live.
  • Using Personal protective equipment (masks, boots, goggles and hats and gloves) for regular contact with poultry.
  • Removing shoes, sandals or other footwear outside the home.
  • Clean personal protective equipment with detergent and warm water, while the objects that we can not clean it properly can be destroyed.
  • Choosing healthy birds (there are no symptoms of avian influenza) to avoid buying poultry from areas suspected of contracting avian influenza.
  • Choosing a good poultry meat that is fresh, chewy (when pressed meat will be right again), not slimy clean, odorless and free of faeces and other poultry manure and away from flies and other insects.
  • Before storing poultry eggs washed first in order to be free from faeces and other poultry droppings.
  • Cooking poultry meat and eggs up to 70 C for at least 1 minute. So far there is scientific evidence that says it is safe to consume poultry and poultry product has been cooked with a good home.
  • Healthy lifestyle in general can prevent the flu such as adequate rest to keep the immune system coupled with eating a balanced diet and regular exercise and do not forget the consumption of vitamin C.
  • Avoid direct contact with potentially infected poultry avian influenza, and report to the authorized officer when viewing the clinical symptoms of avian influenza in domestic animals.
  • Cover your nose and mouth when exposed to flu to avoid spreading the virus.
  • Patients influenza recommended lots of rest, drink plenty and eat nutritious foods.
  • Bring the animal to a veterinarian or veterinary clinic to provide immunizations.
  • Frequent washing or cage bird cage with disinfectant and dried under the sun, because ultraviolet light can be deadly avian influenza virus.
  • If you visit a avian influenza patient, follow the instructions of the hospital staff to wear protective clothing (lab coat), masks, gloves and eye protection. At the time of leaving the patient’s room should release all personal protective equipment, and wash hands with soap.
  • If there are dead birds suddenly with signs such as avian influenza-mark must be destroyed by fire and buried as deep as 1 meter.

TREATMENT

Treatment for patients with avian influenza is.
1) Oxygenation when there is shortness of breath.
2) hydration with parenteral fluids (IVs).
3) The provision of anti-viral drugs oseltamivir 75 mg single dose for 7 days.
4) Amantadine was given early in infection, as far as possible within the first 48 hours for 3-5 days at a dose of 5 mg / kg per day in 2 divided doses. When you lose weight more than 45 kg were given 100 mg two times daily.